2.5.2. Fuel batcher distributor


Principle of operation of the measuring instrument of amount of fuel

1 — a pressure head disk
2 — a distributive plunger

3 — a lever axis
4 — to inlet valves


Principle of operation of the batcher distributor of fuel

1 — a valve spring
2 — a diaphragm
3 — a distributive plunger
4 — a slot-hole sleeve of a distributive plunger

5 — the lower camera
6 — the top camera
7 — supply of fuel to nozzles
8 — the operating edge of a distributive plunger

The batcher distributor regulates amount of the fuel given to nozzles in proportion to amount of the given air.

The batcher distributor of fuel consists of the regulator of pressure, a distributive plunger, valves of differential pressure and a contour of the operating pressure.


Pressure regulator

The regulator of pressure regulates pressure of supply of fuel within 4,5 — 5,2 kg/cm 2. Surplus of fuel comes back to a tank via the drain pipeline.

At an engine stop the regulator of pressure reduces fuel pressure in system to value of a little smaller 3,3 kg/cm 2, i.e. pressure of opening of nozzles. Thereby the possibility of spontaneous ignition of working mix is excluded.


Distributive plunger

The amount of the fuel given to engine cylinders changes in a zvaichisost from the provision of a distributive plunger in which walls there are rectangular cuts which section through passage changes in process of movement of a plunger concerning the windows (one window on each cylinder) executed in a plunger sleeve.

The fuel dosed thus (in proportion to an air consumption) moves in the top cameras of valves of differential pressure.


Valves of differential pressure

Four valves of differential pressure (on one on the cylinder) have two cameras divided by a diaphragm. Irrespective of amount of the given fuel they support constant pressure difference at the level of cuts of a distributive plunger, thanks to it fuel pressure in system and pressure of the fuel given to nozzles is supported at the invariable level.

At increase in supply of fuel in the top cameras pressure increases, the diaphragm caves in down, completely opening openings of supply of fuel to nozzles.

At reduction of supply of fuel in the top cameras the diaphragm is curved up, reducing the section of openings through passage of supply of fuel to nozzles.


Contour of the operating pressure

Pressure in a contour of management is regulated by the regulator of pressure and can change ranging from 0,5 kg/cm 2 on the cold engine and to 3,4 — 3,8 kg/cm 2 on the heated-up engine. At completely open butterfly valve the operating pressure decreases to 2,9 kg/cm 2, causing enrichment of working mix on the mode of full loading of the engine.

For prevention of uncontrollable beats of a pressure head disk of the measuring instrument of a consumption of air under the influence of pulsations of an air stream (with a low frequency of rotation of a bent shaft or on the mode of full loading of the engine) shock-absorbing throttle narrowing is provided.


The regulator of the operating pressure

The regulator of the operating pressure provides enrichment of the working mix coming to combustion chambers at warming up of the engine. On the cold engine the bimetallic spring squeezes a spring of the diaphragm valve, opening the channel of discharge of fuel that leads to reduction of counteraction on a distributive plunger. Reduction of the operating pressure at an invariable consumption of air causes increase in the course of a pressure head disk. Thereof the distributive plunger in addition rises, increasing amount of the fuel given to nozzles.

In process of heating of a bimetallic spring pressure upon a spring of the diaphragm valve of the regulator of the operating pressure decreases and the drain channel is slowly closed. The operating pressure reaches normal value and enrichment of gas mixture stops.

The regulator of the operating pressure is installed on the block of cylinders thanks to what its temperature changes along with engine temperature. It excludes excessive enrichment of working mix at an average temperature.


The principle of operation of the regulator of the operating pressure

And — on the cold engine
B — on the hot engine

1 — a bimetallic spring
2 — fuel discharge

3 — a supply of the operating pressure
4 — a thermowinding of a bimetallic spring


Valves of additional air supply

This valve serves for increase in frequency of rotation of a bent shaft during warming up of the engine. At launch of the cold engine the channel of supply of additional air is opened by the rotary gate of the valve which moves when heating a bimetallic spring. In process of warming up the channel of supply of additional air is gradually blocked.

Besides, supply of additional air is regulated by a pressure head disk of the measuring instrument of amount of air which movement leads to the corresponding raising of a distributive plunger that also promotes increase in frequency of rotation of a bent shaft (at the closed butterfly valve).

At start of the cold engine the electromagnetic starting nozzle operated by a thermal timer sprays additional amount of fuel in an inlet collector.

Fuel to a starting nozzle moves directly from the batcher distributor under pressure of about 4,7 kg/cm 2.

The maximum operating time of a nozzle at a temperature minus 20 °C is equal to 8 pages. At a temperature of cooling liquid above 15 °C the starting nozzle does not join.